Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences</strong> </span>is a peer-reviewed periodical issued by the King Abdulaziz University (KAU) in the fields of Engineering Sciences. The journal publishes original results of outstanding high-quality studies in order to achieve intellectual and scientific growth in the Kingdom. The results of research and studies are published in the fields of Aerospace Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mining Engineering, Nuclear Engineering.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Print ISSN: </strong>1319-1047</p> <p><strong>eISSN:</strong> 1658-4260 </p> <p><strong>Frequency: </strong> June - December</p> <p><strong>Language:</strong> English</p> Scientific Publishing Center - King Abdulaziz University en-US Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences 1319-1047 Enhancing Energy Access: Mapping Biomass Resources for Sustainable Development in Nigeria <p>Nigeria, a major producer of petroleum in the world is currently grappling with a serious energy insufficiency as result of inactivity of her four petroleum refineries often repeated disruptions of the national electricity grid. Importation of refined petroleum products to address the energy shortage has not brought the desired relief as the subsidy regime keeps making the intervention more difficult to interpret for active participation of key players. The natural gas pipeline failure has not been of help because consumers daily seek for alternatives to natural gas utilization due to regular insufficient pressure to meet demand requirements. These, coupled with several challenges associated with fossil fuels utilization including climate change, require that Nigeria embraces biomass as an additional key driver to increase her energy mix. An extensive literature review has been carried out in this paper to identify the major biomass available in the country while their characteristics and spatial distribution are also reported. The technology required for harness to achieve significant intervention so that the present hardship facing Nigerians in accessing energy carriers that will meet up with their demand can be mitigated is identified and reported. The paper concludes that huge benefits await Nigeria if her abundant biomass resources can be trapped into the energy basket of the country</p> Ayoade Adejumo Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 34 1 Characterization of InP SC QD LD After Am-Be Neutron Irradiation <p>This paper is about Am-Be neutron source irradiation of InP Quantum Dot Laser diode. A QD LD was irradiated for 24 hours and 48 hours. The laser undergone IV characterization experiments before, after the first and second irradiations. A computer simulation using GAMOS helped in analyzing the given results from IV curves. The results showed an improvement in the QD LD series resistance, current density and overall, ideality factor at all measured temperatures. This is explained by the activation of the QD LD Indium composition to Strontium, ionization of the compound QD LD materials, and by the energy deposited to the QD LD.</p> abdulmalek rajkhan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 34 1 Occupational Dose Monitoring in Interventional Radiology Department at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Jeddah (KAMC-Jeddah) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Interventional Radiology (IR) is a relatively new and increasingly significant field in healthcare, offering minimally invasive procedures with shorter recovery times. However, as interventions become more complex and longer in duration, there is an increased risk of radiation exposure for medical staff. To address this, substantial efforts have been made to develop radiation protection measures and guidelines to minimize doses and ensure the safety of IR staff. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to measure the doses for IR workers and determine which workers had received the most radiation exposure, as well as dose map the areas in the IR department. <strong>Methods:</strong> The data were measured in the form of Equivalent doses using OSL dosimeters worn under lead apron. The methodology for collecting the data of workers radiation doses was based on the most common procedures during the two months of data collection, which included PICC Line, Nephrostomy, Angioplasty, IVC Filter, Av fistulagram, Embolization, Cerebral Angiogram, and Stent Placement. <strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that the highest OSL doses were recorded during Embolization and Angioplasty procedures, with median SDE values of (0.0040, 0.0026, 0.0021) (0.0033, 0.0021, 0.0017 mSv) for Radiologists, Technologists, and Nurses, respectively. This indicates that Radiologists received the highest radiation dose. Additionally, mapping the procedure room of the angiography suite revealed that areas No. 1 and 5 were the most exposed to radiation, while areas No. 6, 7, 8, and 9 showed no radiation exposure at all. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> A better understanding of the occupational dose in Interventional Radiology was made possible by myOSL dosimeter measurements. Furthermore, several recommendations have been suggested to lower the dose for workers and maximize radiation safety and protection in the IR department.</p> Hind Alzahrani Shouq Alqahtani Afnan Alghamdi Khalid Almalki Ahmad Subahi Muhammad Allabban Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 34 1 Investigation of the optimum neutron energy spectrum for brain tumor boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code <p>Boron neutron capture therapy, a targeted technique for cancer treatment, is based on fission reaction of implanted boron-10 in tumor cells by thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium‐7 nuclei. The short range of these ionizing fission products induces damages to the cancer cells while sparing surrounding healthy tissues. A methodology to determine the optimum neutron energy according to the depth of the tumor in the brain is developed in this work. This methodology mainly depends on separately considering the different reaction types at discrete neutron energies using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code and investigating their relative contribution to the absorbed dose in both the tumor and surrounding healthy tissues. For a certain tumor depth, the neutron energy that maximizes the neutron dose to the tumor and minimizes it in the surrounding healthy tissues is selected. The metrics to evaluate improvement in the optimization process are developed based on the ratio of the tumor dose rate density (Gy/cm<sup>3</sup>‧s) to that of the surrounding healthy tissues. The results showed a significant improvement when compared with those of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended neutron energy ranges. For deep-seated tumors, the dose ratio was improved from 0.89 to 1.77 for tissues preceding the tumor and from 2.40 to 12.0 for tissues after the tumor. For the shallow-seated tumors, the dose ratio was improved from 2.48 to 2.64 for tissues preceding the tumor and from 8.63 to 18.8 for tissues after the tumor.</p> Abdelfattah Soliman Essam Banoqitah Ned Xoubi Fathi Djouider Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 34 1 Enhancing Safety and Slip Resistance of Epoxy Flooring Materials through the Reuse of Aluminum Machining Chips <p>The present study is part of a wide research project conducted by the authors. The overarching purpose of this project is to explore the reuse of aluminum machining chips for the development of design recommendations for epoxy floor materials, specifically focusing on safety requirements and slip resistance based on friction measurements. The aim is to address the potential danger of electrostatic charge generation during walking.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Epoxy floor coatings are commonly used in commercial and industrial settings. They are typically applied over concrete floors to create a smooth, durable surface that can withstand heavy loads and provide a high-performance flooring solution. Many industrial sites, warehouses, and commercial buildings rely on epoxy floors to maintain clean and safe conditions for workers, equipment, and inventory.</p> Abdelhalim Sami Salih Eltahir Elmarud ali Abdulrahman Khamaj ali Abdullah A. Faqihi ali Bafakeeh. O. T Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 34 1 Improved HRV Analysis in ECG Data: A Comparative Study Using MATLAB Code, Kubios, and gHRV <p>Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis is a vital tool in assessing autonomic nervous system regulation and cardiovascular<br>health. This study explores improved HRV analysis techniques by employing MATLAB code and comparing its performance with<br>widely used software tools, Kubios and gHRV. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data from ten subjects under four distinct conditions -<br>baseline, rest, Stroop color task, and meditation - were collected and analyzed. The study focuses on developing and implementing<br>novel algorithms in MATLAB for HRV estimation, providing a comprehensive comparison against existing methods. The study<br>examines the accuracy and reliability of HRV analysis results obtained through MATLAB implementation in contrast to Kubios<br>and gHRV. The MATLAB code is optimized for enhanced computational speed and accuracy, allowing for real-time processing<br>of ECG data. The results indicate significant improvements in HRV analysis using the proposed MATLAB implementation. The<br>proposed MATLAB code and Kubios have similar accuracy for the High-Frequency feature, with 85% accuracy. gHRV, on the<br>other hand, has 100% accuracy for PNN50, indicating its high accuracy in matching reference data. The comparative analysis<br>demonstrates the diverse HRV metrics across different experimental conditions. Additionally, the results highlight the difference<br>in the study approach between Kubios and gHRV, showcasing its potential for widespread adoption in clinical and research<br>settings.<br>This study not only presents an advanced HRV analysis methodology but also provides valuable insights into the reliability of<br>existing software tools. The findings offer researchers and clinicians an informed choice when selecting HRV analysis tools for<br>their specific applications, ensuring accurate and efficient assessment of cardiovascular health and autonomic nervous system<br>function. Further investigations and validations are warranted to establish the robustness and generalizability of the proposed<br>methodology across diverse populations and experimental paradigms</p> Eyad Talal Attar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 34 1 Assessment of radiation exposure and safety practice in CT unit in a general hospital <p>As medical imaging technology in CT scanners improves to provide an accurate and safe diagnosis, the potential hazards of ionizing radiation remain a significant issue in daily medical practice for patients and medical staff. To reduce excessive radiation exposure, computed tomography (CT) parameters must be optimized. By utilizing a dose length product (DLP), this study aims to determine the diagnostic reference level (DRL) for CT in Jazan. Data sheets were sent to all three hospitals in the Jazan area that have CT scanners, and 300 patients were collected. From July 2022 to November 2022, data were collected for all patients undergoing CT CAP (Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis). The DRL for CT CAP with contrast in venous phase examination was 981.9 in the Jazan area of the southern region of Saudi Arabia in 2023. Vast heterogeneity in radiation doses across hospitals suggests the need for the implementation of a national diagnostic reference level (NDRL) in Saudi Arabia. A phantom study experiment that was successful in this scientific paper helped to explain the optimization strategies in the CT unit. The dose report result was comparable with the three sections of the phantom experiment in that the high image quality at even lower radiation exposure was also achieved by the dose reduction methods employed in the CT phantom study experiment parameters such as tube voltage (kV), tube currents (mA), detector coverage (mm), helical thickness (mm), table pitch (mm/rot), and rotation time (s or sec). The phantom study experiment concluded that high image quality at very low dose levels can be achieved using a 100 kV and 120 kV protocol with 300 mA for head CT scans. An online survey was done to assess radiation exposure and safety practice awareness among hospital medical staff to establish the level of awareness among healthcare professionals in the Jazan area. The results of the online survey showed a lack of knowledge regarding radiation exposure, safety practices, and the precise amount of radiation in each imaging procedure. It is recommended to implement educational programs and comprehensive training to increase awareness of radiation protection knowledge.</p> Ali Alsharif Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Engineering Sciences 2024-06-06 2024-06-06 34 1