Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture <p><strong>Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture (JKMEA</strong>) which is a peer-reviewed, open access journal, <strong>free publication fees</strong>, that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of (<strong>Meteorology, Environment, Water Resources Management and Arid land Agriculture Sciences</strong>).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong>1658-4287, <strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 1319-1039</p> <p><strong>Frequency: </strong> January - June</p> <p><strong>Language:</strong> English</p> مركز النشر العلمى - جامعة الملك عبدالعزيز en-US Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture 1658-4287 An Overview of the Impact of Seed Priming on Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) L.) under normal and salt conditions: From Seed Germination to Harvest <p>Tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> L.)&nbsp; is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide and in Saudi Arabia, due to its high nutritional value and suitability for cultivation under a wide range of environmental conditions. Tomato is one of the cash vegetable crops that generate good and continuous income for farmers for two to three months. Globally, tomato is considered a major source of income and a major contributor to food security. Due to the small genome of the tomato, it is considered as a model for physiological, genetic, molecular and breeding studies to improve the morphological, yield and yield attributes and its tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, tomato production and expanding cultivation face many challenges, especially with the global environment changes regarding climate changes, freshwater availability and quality, pests and diseases and soil quality. There were many studies conducted to find effective and applicable solutions to overcome the environmental problems facing the expansion of tomato cultivation and increase productivity, including following good agricultural practices (GAP), improving and breeding new varieties of high yield and quality under harsh environmental conditions and the use of growth biostimulants that help plants grow and produce under difficult conditions. Seed priming is one of the recommended solutions to help tomatoes germination, growth and productivity under biotic and abiotic stresses. The presented review study aims to present the recent studies that have been carried out on the use of seed priming to improve tomatoes germination, growth and productivity under environmental stress conditions. The review is divided into three sections focusing on: (1) seed priming to improve tomato seeds germination; (2) seed priming to improve the growth and yield of tomatoes; and 3) seed priming to improve tomato tolerance salt stress.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Magdi Mousa Turki Al-Ottibi Raneen Mohammad omer ibrahim hisham Al-harby Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 33 1 1 13 Effect of municipal organic waste compost for sustainable maize production in arid land agriculture <p>Effective use of municipal organic waste (MOW) derived composts for soil nutrient management is crucial for sustainable crop production and environmental protection. Maize cultivation using MOW compost is economical and environmentally beneficial around the world. Adding MOW compost to the soil improves maize yield. A field study was conducted in 2022 and 2023 to determine the effects of two composts made from MOW mixed with Vermiculite, Cow dung, and NPK fertilizer at three levels (5, 10, and 15 ton/ha) on maize yield and yield components.<br />Three replications split plot statistical design. Main plots had compost levels, while subplots had four MOW waste composts: MOW, Vermiculite + MOW, Cow manure +MOW, and 125 kg/ha NPK fertilizer with MOW. Each 6 m2 plot had a 50 cm line-to-line and 30 cm plant-to-plant distance. MOW compost with NPK fertilizer had the greatest impact on yield and yield-related characteristics, followed by Vermiculite and Cow manure compost at 15 ton/ha.<br />Finally, MOW mixes with NPK at 15 ton/ha performed best for all maize characteristics. This qualitative and quantitative analysis will not only shed fresh light on converting MOW to compost in the context of arid land agriculture but will also pave the way for a substantial and worthwhile expansion of maize production.</p> Shahadat Hossain Samir G. M. Al-Solaimani Fahad Alghabari Khurram Shahzad Muhammad I. Rashid Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 33 1 15 27 Using Various Fish Processing Techniques to Maintain Flesh Quality and Shelf Life: An Updated Review <p>fish and fish products are crucial for human health, providing high-quality proteins, essential<br />vitamins, minerals, and healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the great nutritional importance of these substances has been linked to numerous health benefits extending from prenatal development of the fetus to puberty .However, fish can deteriorate quickly after harvesting due to external environmental factors such as water quality (waste that turns into ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, pH, amount of dissolved oxygen, and temperature) and internal physiological factors such as microbes and bacteria, which increases the chance of their deterioration and loss of nutritional value. Therefore, it is essential to use techniques for aquaculture fish that are constantly evolving, focusing on the type and condition of the fish and applying appropriate techniques for farmed fish, considering the duration of transport. In addition, there are various techniques used in the preservation of aquaculture fish, including traditional techniques such as salting, drying, smoking, and pickling or marinating; non-traditional fish processing techniques include cooling, freezing, and vacuum packaging. Also, to determine fish freshness such as sensory characteristics, microbial analyses, physical and chemical evaluations. Fish processing techniques include methodologies and procedures used from harvest until reaching the consumer in its final form. This review investigates the most important preservation techniques used for fish and their impact on overall quality. In addition, it<br />aims to achieve sustainable production with nutritional content, improve profitable productivity, and reduce negative health impacts on consumers and fear about the nutritional safety of food to achieve human in line with the Kingdom's Vision 2030's two pillars of a thriving economy and society.</p> Nouf Aljizani Manal Shafi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 33 1 29 46 Assessment of natural vegetation cover at the vicinity of Makkah city, Saudi Arabia <p>Makkah - Saudi Arabia, is one of the most important cities, which faced a reduction in natural<br />vegetative cover, due to the hot aridity, with a maximum temperature around 40-49C, and scarcity of<br />rainfall, the rate of rainfall is between 50-80 mm/year. A plant is supposed to be native if it has occurred naturally in a particular region, ecosystem, or habitat without human intervention. The aim of this study was to study the flora around Makkah city by choosing eight stands from different localities. The field work included relevé, the plots were about 10 × 10 meters in size. The study revealed that the eight stands were represented by 20 species belong to 8 families, Fabaceae and Apocynaceae were dominant by (34%), (25%) followed by Amaranthaceae (13%), Poaceae (12%) and Cucurbitaceae (5%); then (Apiaceae &amp; Asteraceae) were represented by (4%), while Solanaceae was represented by only (3%) of the vegetation. Phanerophytes (40%) were the dominant while Hemicryptophytes (He) were the lowest value of life form (10%). The Floristic categories Saharo-Arabian (SA) and Sudano-Zambezian (AZ) were the dominant (38%), while Mediterranean (ME), Saharo-Sindian (SSI), Tropical (TR), Irano-Turanian (IT) were lowest value (6%).<br />Rhazya stricta has a high number of species that were observed in native plants in study area (17%), while Cenchrus biflorus, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Lycium shawii, Panicum turgidum, Senegalia asak, Senna italica, Stipellula capensis, Vachellia flava and Vachellia tortilis were the lowest with 3% over the stands. Finally, the diversity in species deficiency in Makkah.</p> Jumana Abdulshakour Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 33 1 47 62 A Almond (Prunus dulcis)Comprehensive overview of cultivars, requirements and fields Management. <p>Almond [<em>Prunus dulcis</em> (Mill.) D.A. Webb, syn. <em>P. amygdalus</em> (L.) Batsch] is located in the Mediterranean countries, and its cultivation is limited to regions with a Mediterranean climate. Almonds are a type of tree nut that is considered a healthy snack and are known for their high protein content, carbohydrates, lipid profile, and antioxidants. It contains flavonoids, vitamin E, riboflavin, amino acids, and the essential minerals manganese, magnesium, copper and phosphorus. Flowering occurs when the requirements for chilling and heat are fully satisfied. When growing self-incompatible cultivars, it is essential to design pollinizers properly. It is recommended to have at least 30% pollinizers to ensure optimal pollination. Almonds can be classified into soft- and hard-shell varieties based on their shell characteristics. Almonds are classified into two categories, sweet and bitter. The weather, including the humidity, temperature, and time of day, heavily influences how much water the almond orchard uses. Nutrition is crucial for the proper development of almonds, regular fruiting, and high-quality yields. Almond propagation through grafting allowed for an improved selection of scions to be clonally propagated. New rootstocks should have the following desirable qualities: tolerance to calcareous and/or other poor soils, ease of multiplication by hardwood cuttings and/or micro-propagation and high vigor. Increased tolerance to heavy and water-saturated soils is becoming an important goal for new hybrids. Clonal propagation is used to capture locally adapted elite genotypes, identifying and propagating hundreds of cultivars in specific production areas. In addition, many molecular studies have been reported that facilitate the transfer of these desirable traits. Generally, this article focuses on managing the fields, from selecting cultivars to harvesting, to achieve high-quality and high-quantity Almond production.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aisha Alghamdi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 33 1 63 99